From NUM to INT

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From NUM to INT

André Luis Neves
Dear all:

I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
(using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly, the
other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued as
Num.

I imported the data using the following command line:

X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
                 header = TRUE,
                 dec = ".")

Here is the structure of X:

> str(X)
'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
 $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26 27
29 31 32 36 ...
 $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
 $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
 $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156 13746
...
 $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015 203685
4261780 43110492 69802572 ...


I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
function, but was not successful.


Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.

Thanks,



--
Andre

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STATS_25.04.2016.txt (6K) Download Attachment
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Re: From NUM to INT

Bert Gunter-2
No.

>From ?as.integer:

"Note that current implementations of R use 32-bit integers for
integer vectors, so the range of representable integers is restricted
to about +/-2*10^9: doubles can hold much larger integers exactly. "

Cheers,
Bert


Bert Gunter

"The trouble with having an open mind is that people keep coming along
and sticking things into it."
-- Opus (aka Berkeley Breathed in his "Bloom County" comic strip )


On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 10:11 AM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Dear all:
>
> I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
> (using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly, the
> other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued as
> Num.
>
> I imported the data using the following command line:
>
> X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>                  header = TRUE,
>                  dec = ".")
>
> Here is the structure of X:
>
>> str(X)
> 'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
>  $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26 27
> 29 31 32 36 ...
>  $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
>  $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
> 414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
>  $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156 13746
> ...
>  $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015 203685
> 4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
>
>
> I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
> function, but was not successful.
>
>
> Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
>
> Thanks,
>
>
>
> --
> Andre
>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.

______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
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Re: From NUM to INT

Jeff Newmiller
In reply to this post by André Luis Neves
That is the "impossible" case, since R integers are 32 bit signed (~2×10^9) even in 64 bit R. You can Google for "R arbitrary precision" and look for packages like Ryacas, bit64 or gmp. However, having such large integers stored as integers would not be necessary for most statistical analyses so you should confirm that your analysis cannot be performed using floating point numbers before resorting to that.
--
Sent from my phone. Please excuse my brevity.

On April 26, 2016 10:11:38 AM PDT, "André Luis Neves" <[hidden email]> wrote:

>Dear all:
>
>I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
>(using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly,
>the
>other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued
>as
>Num.
>
>I imported the data using the following command line:
>
>X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>                 header = TRUE,
>                 dec = ".")
>
>Here is the structure of X:
>
>> str(X)
>'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
>$ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26
>27
>29 31 32 36 ...
> $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
> $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
>414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
>$ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156
>13746
>...
>$ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015
>203685
>4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
>
>
>I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
>function, but was not successful.
>
>
>Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
>
>Thanks,
>
>
>​
>--
>Andre
>
>
>------------------------------------------------------------------------
>
>______________________________________________
>[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
>https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
>PLEASE do read the posting guide
>http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
>and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.

        [[alternative HTML version deleted]]

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Re: From NUM to INT

Bert Gunter-2
In reply to this post by Bert Gunter-2
Please respond to the list. It will be obvious why in a second.

That's not my threshhold! -- it's R's. Your numeric integers cannot be
exactly represented as integers in R. Period. Maybe there are special
packages for extended arithmetic that can do this. but someone else
would have to help you there.  See here for a discussion that might be
helpful:

http://www.r-bloggers.com/r-in-a-64-bit-world/


Cheers,
Bert

Bert Gunter

"The trouble with having an open mind is that people keep coming along
and sticking things into it."
-- Opus (aka Berkeley Breathed in his "Bloom County" comic strip )


On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 10:46 AM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]> wrote:

> So, How could I implement this, Bert?
>
> I really need that the variable be converted unto an integer, and it seems
> that my numbers are much higher than that threshold you stated.
>
> Thanks,
>
> Andre
>
> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 11:42 AM, Bert Gunter <[hidden email]>
> wrote:
>>
>> No.
>>
>> From ?as.integer:
>>
>> "Note that current implementations of R use 32-bit integers for
>> integer vectors, so the range of representable integers is restricted
>> to about +/-2*10^9: doubles can hold much larger integers exactly. "
>>
>> Cheers,
>> Bert
>>
>>
>> Bert Gunter
>>
>> "The trouble with having an open mind is that people keep coming along
>> and sticking things into it."
>> -- Opus (aka Berkeley Breathed in his "Bloom County" comic strip )
>>
>>
>> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 10:11 AM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]>
>> wrote:
>> > Dear all:
>> >
>> > I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
>> > (using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly,
>> > the
>> > other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued
>> > as
>> > Num.
>> >
>> > I imported the data using the following command line:
>> >
>> > X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>> >                  header = TRUE,
>> >                  dec = ".")
>> >
>> > Here is the structure of X:
>> >
>> >> str(X)
>> > 'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
>> >  $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26
>> > 27
>> > 29 31 32 36 ...
>> >  $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
>> >  $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
>> > 414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
>> >  $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156
>> > 13746
>> > ...
>> >  $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015
>> > 203685
>> > 4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
>> >
>> >
>> > I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
>> > function, but was not successful.
>> >
>> >
>> > Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
>> >
>> > Thanks,
>> >
>> >
>> >
>> > --
>> > Andre
>> >
>> > ______________________________________________
>> > [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
>> > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
>> > PLEASE do read the posting guide
>> > http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
>> > and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>
>
>
>
> --
> Andre

______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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Re: From NUM to INT

jholtman
In reply to this post by André Luis Neves
Can you explain why you need them as 'integer',  A floating point
representation can hold a value upto ~4.5e15 as an "integer" keeping the
precision that you might need.


Jim Holtman
Data Munger Guru

What is the problem that you are trying to solve?
Tell me what you want to do, not how you want to do it.

On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 1:11 PM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]>
wrote:

> Dear all:
>
> I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
> (using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly, the
> other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued as
> Num.
>
> I imported the data using the following command line:
>
> X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>                  header = TRUE,
>                  dec = ".")
>
> Here is the structure of X:
>
> > str(X)
> 'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
>  $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26 27
> 29 31 32 36 ...
>  $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
>  $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
> 414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
>  $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156 13746
> ...
>  $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015 203685
> 4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
>
>
> I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
> function, but was not successful.
>
>
> Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
>
> Thanks,
>
>
> ​
> --
> Andre
>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> PLEASE do read the posting guide
> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>

        [[alternative HTML version deleted]]

______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
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and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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Re: From NUM to INT

André Luis Neves
Ok. I`m trying to run a Poisson glmm with an observation-level random
intercept. But I`m getting the following error for the 'Baci' variable:

'Error: (maxstephalfit) PIRLS step-halvings failed to reduce deviance in
pwrssUpdate'. I  guess this message is because the baci variable is not a
an integer, and cannot be transformed into an integer as R has a threshold
of
2x10^9 even in 64 bit R.

It runs fine for the fungii variable.

If you guys want to run the data (attached), the full command is below.

Thanks.

---------------------------------------------

##Import data:

qPCR <- read.delim(file.choose(),
                 header = TRUE,
                 dec = ".")

##Load package

library(lme4)

##Other steps:

qPCR$obs <- 1:nrow(qPCR)
qPCR$fID<-as.factor(qPCR$ID)
qPCR$fDiet<-as.factor(qPCR$Diet)

##Run the model:

M1 <- glmer (Baci ~ fDiet + Crossover + (1|fID:Crossover) + (1|obs),
             family = poisson, data=qPCR)



Andre



On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 2:36 PM, jim holtman <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Can you explain why you need them as 'integer',  A floating point
> representation can hold a value upto ~4.5e15 as an "integer" keeping the
> precision that you might need.
>
>
> Jim Holtman
> Data Munger Guru
>
> What is the problem that you are trying to solve?
> Tell me what you want to do, not how you want to do it.
>
> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 1:11 PM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]>
> wrote:
>
>> Dear all:
>>
>> I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
>> (using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly, the
>> other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued as
>> Num.
>>
>> I imported the data using the following command line:
>>
>> X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>>                  header = TRUE,
>>                  dec = ".")
>>
>> Here is the structure of X:
>>
>> > str(X)
>> 'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
>>  $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26 27
>> 29 31 32 36 ...
>>  $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
>>  $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
>> 414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
>>  $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156 13746
>> ...
>>  $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015
>> 203685
>> 4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
>>
>>
>> I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
>> function, but was not successful.
>>
>>
>> Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
>>
>> Thanks,
>>
>>
>> ​
>> --
>> Andre
>>
>> ______________________________________________
>> [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
>> PLEASE do read the posting guide
>> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
>> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>>
>
>

--
Andre

______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.

Test_26.04.2016.txt (9K) Download Attachment
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Re: From NUM to INT

Bert Gunter-2
Inline.

-- Bert


On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 2:25 PM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]> wrote:
> Ok. I`m trying to run a Poisson glmm with an observation-level random
> intercept. But I`m getting the following error for the 'Baci' variable:
>
> 'Error: (maxstephalfit) PIRLS step-halvings failed to reduce deviance in
> pwrssUpdate'. I  guess this message is because the baci variable is not a
> an integer,

Why would you "guess" that? Given your magnitudes, I suspect it's a
scaling issue. Try centering and scaling your Baci variable before
fitting.

Cheers,
Bert





and cannot be transformed into an integer as R has a threshold

> of
> 2x10^9 even in 64 bit R.
>
> It runs fine for the fungii variable.
>
> If you guys want to run the data (attached), the full command is below.
>
> Thanks.
>
> ---------------------------------------------
>
> ##Import data:
>
> qPCR <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>                  header = TRUE,
>                  dec = ".")
>
> ##Load package
>
> library(lme4)
>
> ##Other steps:
>
> qPCR$obs <- 1:nrow(qPCR)
> qPCR$fID<-as.factor(qPCR$ID)
> qPCR$fDiet<-as.factor(qPCR$Diet)
>
> ##Run the model:
>
> M1 <- glmer (Baci ~ fDiet + Crossover + (1|fID:Crossover) + (1|obs),
>              family = poisson, data=qPCR)
>
>
>
> Andre
>
>
>
> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 2:36 PM, jim holtman <[hidden email]> wrote:
>
>> Can you explain why you need them as 'integer',  A floating point
>> representation can hold a value upto ~4.5e15 as an "integer" keeping the
>> precision that you might need.
>>
>>
>> Jim Holtman
>> Data Munger Guru
>>
>> What is the problem that you are trying to solve?
>> Tell me what you want to do, not how you want to do it.
>>
>> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 1:11 PM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]>
>> wrote:
>>
>>> Dear all:
>>>
>>> I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
>>> (using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly, the
>>> other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued as
>>> Num.
>>>
>>> I imported the data using the following command line:
>>>
>>> X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
>>>                  header = TRUE,
>>>                  dec = ".")
>>>
>>> Here is the structure of X:
>>>
>>> > str(X)
>>> 'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
>>>  $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18 26 27
>>> 29 31 32 36 ...
>>>  $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
>>>  $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
>>> 414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
>>>  $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156 13746
>>> ...
>>>  $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015
>>> 203685
>>> 4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
>>>
>>>
>>> I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
>>> function, but was not successful.
>>>
>>>
>>> Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
>>>
>>> Thanks,
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Andre
>>>
>>> ______________________________________________
>>> [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
>>> PLEASE do read the posting guide
>>> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
>>> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>>>
>>
>>
>
>
> --
> Andre
>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.

______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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Re: From NUM to INT

André Luis Neves
Hi Bert:

I thought in centering Baci variable, but I wouldn`t like to draw a
conclusion based on the scaled response variable.

On the other hand, if I had to center the explanatory variable, that would
be great, but I cannot, as it is a factor.

Thanks a lot for your time. I really appreciated your help.

Best regards,

Andre



On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 4:11 PM, Bert Gunter <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Inline.
>
> -- Bert
>
>
> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 2:25 PM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]>
> wrote:
> > Ok. I`m trying to run a Poisson glmm with an observation-level random
> > intercept. But I`m getting the following error for the 'Baci' variable:
> >
> > 'Error: (maxstephalfit) PIRLS step-halvings failed to reduce deviance in
> > pwrssUpdate'. I  guess this message is because the baci variable is not a
> > an integer,
>
> Why would you "guess" that? Given your magnitudes, I suspect it's a
> scaling issue. Try centering and scaling your Baci variable before
> fitting.
>
> Cheers,
> Bert
>
>
>
>
>
> and cannot be transformed into an integer as R has a threshold
> > of
> > 2x10^9 even in 64 bit R.
> >
> > It runs fine for the fungii variable.
> >
> > If you guys want to run the data (attached), the full command is below.
> >
> > Thanks.
> >
> > ---------------------------------------------
> >
> > ##Import data:
> >
> > qPCR <- read.delim(file.choose(),
> >                  header = TRUE,
> >                  dec = ".")
> >
> > ##Load package
> >
> > library(lme4)
> >
> > ##Other steps:
> >
> > qPCR$obs <- 1:nrow(qPCR)
> > qPCR$fID<-as.factor(qPCR$ID)
> > qPCR$fDiet<-as.factor(qPCR$Diet)
> >
> > ##Run the model:
> >
> > M1 <- glmer (Baci ~ fDiet + Crossover + (1|fID:Crossover) + (1|obs),
> >              family = poisson, data=qPCR)
> >
> >
> >
> > Andre
> >
> >
> >
> > On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 2:36 PM, jim holtman <[hidden email]> wrote:
> >
> >> Can you explain why you need them as 'integer',  A floating point
> >> representation can hold a value upto ~4.5e15 as an "integer" keeping the
> >> precision that you might need.
> >>
> >>
> >> Jim Holtman
> >> Data Munger Guru
> >>
> >> What is the problem that you are trying to solve?
> >> Tell me what you want to do, not how you want to do it.
> >>
> >> On Tue, Apr 26, 2016 at 1:11 PM, André Luis Neves <[hidden email]
> >
> >> wrote:
> >>
> >>> Dear all:
> >>>
> >>> I converted the columns (Baci, Meti, Fungii, Protozoai) into integers
> >>> (using excel) and then imported the data (.txt) into R. Interestingly,
> the
> >>> other three variables were loaded as INT, but the 'Baci' one continued
> as
> >>> Num.
> >>>
> >>> I imported the data using the following command line:
> >>>
> >>> X <- read.delim(file.choose(),
> >>>                  header = TRUE,
> >>>                  dec = ".")
> >>>
> >>> Here is the structure of X:
> >>>
> >>> > str(X)
> >>> 'data.frame': 115 obs. of  5 variables:
> >>>  $ ID       : Factor w/ 61 levels "107ZRED","112BLKW",..: 8 12 15 18
> 26 27
> >>> 29 31 32 36 ...
> >>>  $ Baci     : num  2.90e+12 5.55e+11 9.46e+11 8.13e+11 4.06e+11 ...
> >>>  $ Meti     : int  352645997 334146268 767208656 171567266 462747405
> >>> 414905627 237010514 387480048 214671355 328813226 ...
> >>>  $ Fungii   : int  43645 19009 15998 2189 8972 8240 3133 17922 6156
> 13746
> >>> ...
> >>>  $ Protozoai: int  3220523 1851891 3252462 1665675 34123768 23175015
> >>> 203685
> >>> 4261780 43110492 69802572 ...
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> I need Baci as an integer, and tried to convert it using as.integer
> >>> function, but was not successful.
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> Could anyone please help me to solve this problem.
> >>>
> >>> Thanks,
> >>>
> >>>
> >>>
> >>> --
> >>> Andre
> >>>
> >>> ______________________________________________
> >>> [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
> >>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> >>> PLEASE do read the posting guide
> >>> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> >>> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
> >>>
> >>
> >>
> >
> >
> > --
> > Andre
> >
> > ______________________________________________
> > [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
> > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
> > PLEASE do read the posting guide
> http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
> > and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
>



--
Andre

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______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help
PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html
and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.