# Q re: logical indexing with is.na

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## Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 Hi!  Newbie (self-)learning R using P. Dalgaard's "Intro Stats w/ R"; not new to statistics (have had grad-level courses and work experience in statistics) or vectorized programming syntax (have extensive experience with MatLab, Python/NumPy, and IDL, and even a smidgen--a long time ago--of experience w/ S-plus). In exploring the use of is.na in the context of logical indexing, I've come across the following puzzling-to-me result: > y; !is.na(y[1:3]); y[!is.na(y[1:3])] [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA -0.2079209 [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 As you can see, y is a four element vector, the third element of which is NA; the next line gives what I would expect--T T F--because the first two elements are not NA but the third element is.  The third line is what confuses me: why is the result not the two element vector consisting of simply the first two elements of the vector (or, if vectorized indexing in R is implemented to return a vector the same length as the logical index vector, which appears to be the case, at least the first two elements and then either NA or NaN in the third slot, where the logical indexing vector is FALSE): why does the implementation "go looking" for an element whose index in the "original" vector, 4, is larger than BOTH the largest index specified in the inner-most subsetting index AND the size of the resulting indexing vector?  (Note: at first I didn't even understand why the result wasn't simply 0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA but then I realized that the third logical index being FALSE, there was no reason for *any* element to be there; but if there is, due to some overriding rule regarding the length of the result relative to the length of the indexer, shouldn't it revert back to *something* that indicates the "FALSE"ness of that indexing element?) Thanks! DLG > sessionInfo() R version 3.5.2 (2018-12-20) Platform: x86_64-apple-darwin15.6.0 (64-bit) Running under: macOS High Sierra 10.13.6 Matrix products: default BLAS: /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/3.5/Resources/lib/libRblas.0.dylib LAPACK: /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/3.5/Resources/lib/libRlapack.dylib locale: [1] en_US.UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8/C/en_US.UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8 attached base packages: [1] stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods   base other attached packages: [1] ISwR_2.0-7 loaded via a namespace (and not attached): [1] compiler_3.5.2 tools_3.5.2         [[alternative HTML version deleted]] ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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## Re: Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 From ?Arithmetic the elements of shorter      vectors are recycled as necessary (with a ‘warning’ when they are      recycled only _fractionally_). > tmp <- !is.na(y[1:3]) > tmp [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE > c(tmp, tmp) [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE  TRUE FALSE > c(tmp, tmp)[1:4] [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE  TRUE >  y[c(tmp, tmp)[1:4]] [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 > The behavior is as documented.  I am surprised that there is no warning about partial recycling. On Sat, Mar 9, 2019 at 9:03 PM David Goldsmith <[hidden email]> wrote: > > Hi!  Newbie (self-)learning R using P. Dalgaard's "Intro Stats w/ R"; not > new to statistics (have had grad-level courses and work experience in > statistics) or vectorized programming syntax (have extensive experience > with MatLab, Python/NumPy, and IDL, and even a smidgen--a long time ago--of > experience w/ S-plus). > > In exploring the use of is.na in the context of logical indexing, I've come > across the following puzzling-to-me result: > > > y; !is.na(y[1:3]); y[!is.na(y[1:3])] > [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA -0.2079209 > [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE > [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 > > As you can see, y is a four element vector, the third element of which is > NA; the next line gives what I would expect--T T F--because the first two > elements are not NA but the third element is.  The third line is what > confuses me: why is the result not the two element vector consisting of > simply the first two elements of the vector (or, if vectorized indexing in > R is implemented to return a vector the same length as the logical index > vector, which appears to be the case, at least the first two elements and > then either NA or NaN in the third slot, where the logical indexing vector > is FALSE): why does the implementation "go looking" for an element whose > index in the "original" vector, 4, is larger than BOTH the largest index > specified in the inner-most subsetting index AND the size of the resulting > indexing vector?  (Note: at first I didn't even understand why the result > wasn't simply > > 0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA > > but then I realized that the third logical index being FALSE, there was no > reason for *any* element to be there; but if there is, due to some > overriding rule regarding the length of the result relative to the length > of the indexer, shouldn't it revert back to *something* that indicates the > "FALSE"ness of that indexing element?) > > Thanks! > > DLG > > > sessionInfo() > R version 3.5.2 (2018-12-20) > Platform: x86_64-apple-darwin15.6.0 (64-bit) > Running under: macOS High Sierra 10.13.6 > > Matrix products: default > BLAS: > /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/3.5/Resources/lib/libRblas.0.dylib > LAPACK: > /Library/Frameworks/R.framework/Versions/3.5/Resources/lib/libRlapack.dylib > > locale: > [1] en_US.UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8/C/en_US.UTF-8/en_US.UTF-8 > > attached base packages: > [1] stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods   base > > other attached packages: > [1] ISwR_2.0-7 > > loaded via a namespace (and not attached): > [1] compiler_3.5.2 tools_3.5.2 > >         [[alternative HTML version deleted]] > > ______________________________________________ > [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help> PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code. ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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## Re: [FORGED] Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 In reply to this post by David Goldsmith On 3/10/19 2:36 PM, David Goldsmith wrote: > Hi!  Newbie (self-)learning R using P. Dalgaard's "Intro Stats w/ R"; not > new to statistics (have had grad-level courses and work experience in > statistics) or vectorized programming syntax (have extensive experience > with MatLab, Python/NumPy, and IDL, and even a smidgen--a long time ago--of > experience w/ S-plus). > > In exploring the use of is.na in the context of logical indexing, I've come > across the following puzzling-to-me result: > >> y; !is.na(y[1:3]); y[!is.na(y[1:3])] > [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA -0.2079209 > [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE > [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 > > As you can see, y is a four element vector, the third element of which is > NA; the next line gives what I would expect--T T F--because the first two > elements are not NA but the third element is.  The third line is what > confuses me: why is the result not the two element vector consisting of > simply the first two elements of the vector (or, if vectorized indexing in > R is implemented to return a vector the same length as the logical index > vector, which appears to be the case, at least the first two elements and > then either NA or NaN in the third slot, where the logical indexing vector > is FALSE): why does the implementation "go looking" for an element whose > index in the "original" vector, 4, is larger than BOTH the largest index > specified in the inner-most subsetting index AND the size of the resulting > indexing vector?  (Note: at first I didn't even understand why the result > wasn't simply > > 0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA > > but then I realized that the third logical index being FALSE, there was no > reason for *any* element to be there; but if there is, due to some > overriding rule regarding the length of the result relative to the length > of the indexer, shouldn't it revert back to *something* that indicates the > "FALSE"ness of that indexing element?) > > Thanks! It happens because R is eco-concious and re-cycles. :-) Try: ok <- c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE) (1:4)[ok] In general in R if there is an operation involving two vectors then the shorter one gets recycled to provide sufficiently many entries to match those of the longer vector. This in the foregoing example the first entry of "ok" gets used again, to make a length 4 vector to match up with 1:4.  The result is the same as (1:4)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)]. If you did (1:7)[ok] you'd get the same result as that from (1:7)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] i.e. "ok" gets recycled 2 and 1/3 times. Try 10*(1:3) + 1:4, 10*(1:3) + 1:5, 10*(1:3) + 1:6 . Note that in the first two instances you get warnings, but in the third you don't, since 6 is an integer multiple of 3. Why aren't there warnings when logical indexing is used?  I guess because it would be annoying.  Maybe. Note that integer indices get recycled too, but the recycling is limited so as not to produce redundancies.  So (1:4)[1:3] just (sensibly) gives [1] 1 2 3 and *not* [1] 1 2 3 1 Perhaps a bit subtle, but it gives what you'd actually *want* rather than being pedantic about rules with a result that you wouldn't want. cheers, Rolf Turner P.S.  If you do y[1:3][!is.na(y[1:3])] i.e. if you're careful to match the length of the vector and the that of the indices, you get what you initially expected. R. T. P^2.S.  To the younger and wiser heads on this list:  the help on "[" does not mention that the index vectors can be logical.  I couldn't find anything about logical indexing in the R help files.  Is something missing here, or am I just not looking in the right place? R. T. -- Honorary Research Fellow Department of Statistics University of Auckland Phone: +64-9-373-7599 ext. 88276 ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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## Re: [FORGED] Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 Regarding the mention of logical indexing, under ?Extract I see: For [-indexing only: i, j, ... can be logical vectors, indicating elements/slices to select. Such vectors are recycled if necessary to match the corresponding extent. i, j, ... can also be negative integers, indicating elements/slices to leave out of the selection. On March 9, 2019 6:57:05 PM PST, Rolf Turner <[hidden email]> wrote: >On 3/10/19 2:36 PM, David Goldsmith wrote: >> Hi!  Newbie (self-)learning R using P. Dalgaard's "Intro Stats w/ R"; >not >> new to statistics (have had grad-level courses and work experience in >> statistics) or vectorized programming syntax (have extensive >experience >> with MatLab, Python/NumPy, and IDL, and even a smidgen--a long time >ago--of >> experience w/ S-plus). >> >> In exploring the use of is.na in the context of logical indexing, >I've come >> across the following puzzling-to-me result: >> >>> y; !is.na(y[1:3]); y[!is.na(y[1:3])] >> [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA -0.2079209 >> [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE >> [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 >> >> As you can see, y is a four element vector, the third element of >which is >> NA; the next line gives what I would expect--T T F--because the first >two >> elements are not NA but the third element is.  The third line is what >> confuses me: why is the result not the two element vector consisting >of >> simply the first two elements of the vector (or, if vectorized >indexing in >> R is implemented to return a vector the same length as the logical >index >> vector, which appears to be the case, at least the first two elements >and >> then either NA or NaN in the third slot, where the logical indexing >vector >> is FALSE): why does the implementation "go looking" for an element >whose >> index in the "original" vector, 4, is larger than BOTH the largest >index >> specified in the inner-most subsetting index AND the size of the >resulting >> indexing vector?  (Note: at first I didn't even understand why the >result >> wasn't simply >> >> 0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA >> >> but then I realized that the third logical index being FALSE, there >was no >> reason for *any* element to be there; but if there is, due to some >> overriding rule regarding the length of the result relative to the >length >> of the indexer, shouldn't it revert back to *something* that >indicates the >> "FALSE"ness of that indexing element?) >> >> Thanks! > >It happens because R is eco-concious and re-cycles. :-) > >Try: > >ok <- c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE) >(1:4)[ok] > >In general in R if there is an operation involving two vectors then >the shorter one gets recycled to provide sufficiently many entries to >match those of the longer vector. > >This in the foregoing example the first entry of "ok" gets used again, >to make a length 4 vector to match up with 1:4.  The result is the same > >as (1:4)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)]. > >If you did (1:7)[ok] you'd get the same result as that from >(1:7)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] i.e. "ok" gets >recycled 2 and 1/3 times. > >Try 10*(1:3) + 1:4, 10*(1:3) + 1:5, 10*(1:3) + 1:6 . > >Note that in the first two instances you get warnings, but in the third >you don't, since 6 is an integer multiple of 3. > >Why aren't there warnings when logical indexing is used?  I guess >because it would be annoying.  Maybe. > >Note that integer indices get recycled too, but the recycling is >limited >so as not to produce redundancies.  So > >(1:4)[1:3] just (sensibly) gives > >[1] 1 2 3 > >and *not* > >[1] 1 2 3 1 > >Perhaps a bit subtle, but it gives what you'd actually *want* rather >than being pedantic about rules with a result that you wouldn't want. > >cheers, > >Rolf Turner > >P.S.  If you do > >y[1:3][!is.na(y[1:3])] > >i.e. if you're careful to match the length of the vector and the that >of >the indices, you get what you initially expected. > >R. T. > >P^2.S.  To the younger and wiser heads on this list:  the help on "[" >does not mention that the index vectors can be logical.  I couldn't >find >anything about logical indexing in the R help files.  Is something >missing here, or am I just not looking in the right place? > >R. T. -- Sent from my phone. Please excuse my brevity. ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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## Re: [FORGED] Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 On 3/10/19 6:07 PM, Jeff Newmiller wrote: > Regarding the mention of logical indexing, under ?Extract I see: > > For [-indexing only: i, j, ... can be logical vectors, indicating > elements/slices to select. Such vectors are recycled if necessary to > match the corresponding extent. i, j, ... can also be negative > integers, indicating elements/slices to leave out of the selection. Dang!  It was staring me in the face all the time, and I didn't see it! Grrrrrr. Thanks Jeff. cheers, Rolf -- Honorary Research Fellow Department of Statistics University of Auckland Phone: +64-9-373-7599 ext. 88276 ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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## Re: [FORGED] Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 In reply to this post by Jeff Newmiller Thanks, all.  I had read about recycling, but I guess I didn't fully appreciate all the "weirdness" it might produce. :/ With this explained, I'm going to ask a follow-up, which is only contextually related: the impetus for this discovery was checking "corner cases" to determine if all(x[!is.na(x)]==y[!is.na(y)]) would suffice to determine equality of two vectors containing NA's.  Between the above result; my related discovery that this indexing preserves relative positional info but not absolute positional info; and the performance penalty when comparing long vectors that may be unequal "early on";  I've concluded that--if it (can be made to) "short circuit"--it would probably be better to use an implicit loop.  So that's my Q: will (or can) an implicit loop (be made to) "exit early" if a specified condition is met before all indices have been checked? Thanks again! DLG On Sat, Mar 9, 2019 at 9:07 PM Jeff Newmiller <[hidden email]> wrote: > Regarding the mention of logical indexing, under ?Extract I see: > > For [-indexing only: i, j, ... can be logical vectors, indicating > elements/slices to select. Such vectors are recycled if necessary to match > the corresponding extent. i, j, ... can also be negative integers, > indicating elements/slices to leave out of the selection. > > On March 9, 2019 6:57:05 PM PST, Rolf Turner <[hidden email]> > wrote: > >On 3/10/19 2:36 PM, David Goldsmith wrote: > >> Hi!  Newbie (self-)learning R using P. Dalgaard's "Intro Stats w/ R"; > >not > >> new to statistics (have had grad-level courses and work experience in > >> statistics) or vectorized programming syntax (have extensive > >experience > >> with MatLab, Python/NumPy, and IDL, and even a smidgen--a long time > >ago--of > >> experience w/ S-plus). > >> > >> In exploring the use of is.na in the context of logical indexing, > >I've come > >> across the following puzzling-to-me result: > >> > >>> y; !is.na(y[1:3]); y[!is.na(y[1:3])] > >> [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA -0.2079209 > >> [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE > >> [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 > >> > >> As you can see, y is a four element vector, the third element of > >which is > >> NA; the next line gives what I would expect--T T F--because the first > >two > >> elements are not NA but the third element is.  The third line is what > >> confuses me: why is the result not the two element vector consisting > >of > >> simply the first two elements of the vector (or, if vectorized > >indexing in > >> R is implemented to return a vector the same length as the logical > >index > >> vector, which appears to be the case, at least the first two elements > >and > >> then either NA or NaN in the third slot, where the logical indexing > >vector > >> is FALSE): why does the implementation "go looking" for an element > >whose > >> index in the "original" vector, 4, is larger than BOTH the largest > >index > >> specified in the inner-most subsetting index AND the size of the > >resulting > >> indexing vector?  (Note: at first I didn't even understand why the > >result > >> wasn't simply > >> > >> 0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA > >> > >> but then I realized that the third logical index being FALSE, there > >was no > >> reason for *any* element to be there; but if there is, due to some > >> overriding rule regarding the length of the result relative to the > >length > >> of the indexer, shouldn't it revert back to *something* that > >indicates the > >> "FALSE"ness of that indexing element?) > >> > >> Thanks! > > > >It happens because R is eco-concious and re-cycles. :-) > > > >Try: > > > >ok <- c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE) > >(1:4)[ok] > > > >In general in R if there is an operation involving two vectors then > >the shorter one gets recycled to provide sufficiently many entries to > >match those of the longer vector. > > > >This in the foregoing example the first entry of "ok" gets used again, > >to make a length 4 vector to match up with 1:4.  The result is the same > > > >as (1:4)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)]. > > > >If you did (1:7)[ok] you'd get the same result as that from > >(1:7)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] i.e. "ok" gets > >recycled 2 and 1/3 times. > > > >Try 10*(1:3) + 1:4, 10*(1:3) + 1:5, 10*(1:3) + 1:6 . > > > >Note that in the first two instances you get warnings, but in the third > >you don't, since 6 is an integer multiple of 3. > > > >Why aren't there warnings when logical indexing is used?  I guess > >because it would be annoying.  Maybe. > > > >Note that integer indices get recycled too, but the recycling is > >limited > >so as not to produce redundancies.  So > > > >(1:4)[1:3] just (sensibly) gives > > > >[1] 1 2 3 > > > >and *not* > > > >[1] 1 2 3 1 > > > >Perhaps a bit subtle, but it gives what you'd actually *want* rather > >than being pedantic about rules with a result that you wouldn't want. > > > >cheers, > > > >Rolf Turner > > > >P.S.  If you do > > > >y[1:3][!is.na(y[1:3])] > > > >i.e. if you're careful to match the length of the vector and the that > >of > >the indices, you get what you initially expected. > > > >R. T. > > > >P^2.S.  To the younger and wiser heads on this list:  the help on "[" > >does not mention that the index vectors can be logical.  I couldn't > >find > >anything about logical indexing in the R help files.  Is something > >missing here, or am I just not looking in the right place? > > > >R. T. > > -- > Sent from my phone. Please excuse my brevity. >         [[alternative HTML version deleted]] ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.
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## Re: [FORGED] Q re: logical indexing with is.na

 On 10/03/2019 1:15 a.m., David Goldsmith wrote: > Thanks, all.  I had read about recycling, but I guess I didn't fully > appreciate all the "weirdness" it might produce. :/ > > With this explained, I'm going to ask a follow-up, which is only > contextually related: the impetus for this discovery was checking "corner > cases" to determine if all(x[!is.na(x)]==y[!is.na(y)]) would suffice to > determine equality of two vectors containing NA's.  Between the above > result; my related discovery that this indexing preserves relative > positional info but not absolute positional info; and the performance > penalty when comparing long vectors that may be unequal "early on";  I've > concluded that--if it (can be made to) "short circuit"--it would probably > be better to use an implicit loop.  So that's my Q: will (or can) an > implicit loop (be made to) "exit early" if a specified condition is met > before all indices have been checked? You could use the identical() function.  When I have vectors of length 1 million, all(x == y) takes about 3 milliseconds when the difference is in the last value, 2 milliseconds when it comes first.  identical(x, y) takes about 5 milliseconds when the difference comes last, but 0.006 milliseconds when it comes first.  Of course, all(x == y) and identical(x, y) do slightly different tests:  read the docs! Duncan Murdoch > > Thanks again! > > DLG > > On Sat, Mar 9, 2019 at 9:07 PM Jeff Newmiller <[hidden email]> > wrote: > >> Regarding the mention of logical indexing, under ?Extract I see: >> >> For [-indexing only: i, j, ... can be logical vectors, indicating >> elements/slices to select. Such vectors are recycled if necessary to match >> the corresponding extent. i, j, ... can also be negative integers, >> indicating elements/slices to leave out of the selection. >> >> On March 9, 2019 6:57:05 PM PST, Rolf Turner <[hidden email]> >> wrote: >>> On 3/10/19 2:36 PM, David Goldsmith wrote: >>>> Hi!  Newbie (self-)learning R using P. Dalgaard's "Intro Stats w/ R"; >>> not >>>> new to statistics (have had grad-level courses and work experience in >>>> statistics) or vectorized programming syntax (have extensive >>> experience >>>> with MatLab, Python/NumPy, and IDL, and even a smidgen--a long time >>> ago--of >>>> experience w/ S-plus). >>>> >>>> In exploring the use of is.na in the context of logical indexing, >>> I've come >>>> across the following puzzling-to-me result: >>>> >>>>> y; !is.na(y[1:3]); y[!is.na(y[1:3])] >>>> [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA -0.2079209 >>>> [1]  TRUE  TRUE FALSE >>>> [1]  0.3534253 -1.6731597 -0.2079209 >>>> >>>> As you can see, y is a four element vector, the third element of >>> which is >>>> NA; the next line gives what I would expect--T T F--because the first >>> two >>>> elements are not NA but the third element is.  The third line is what >>>> confuses me: why is the result not the two element vector consisting >>> of >>>> simply the first two elements of the vector (or, if vectorized >>> indexing in >>>> R is implemented to return a vector the same length as the logical >>> index >>>> vector, which appears to be the case, at least the first two elements >>> and >>>> then either NA or NaN in the third slot, where the logical indexing >>> vector >>>> is FALSE): why does the implementation "go looking" for an element >>> whose >>>> index in the "original" vector, 4, is larger than BOTH the largest >>> index >>>> specified in the inner-most subsetting index AND the size of the >>> resulting >>>> indexing vector?  (Note: at first I didn't even understand why the >>> result >>>> wasn't simply >>>> >>>> 0.3534253 -1.6731597         NA >>>> >>>> but then I realized that the third logical index being FALSE, there >>> was no >>>> reason for *any* element to be there; but if there is, due to some >>>> overriding rule regarding the length of the result relative to the >>> length >>>> of the indexer, shouldn't it revert back to *something* that >>> indicates the >>>> "FALSE"ness of that indexing element?) >>>> >>>> Thanks! >>> >>> It happens because R is eco-concious and re-cycles. :-) >>> >>> Try: >>> >>> ok <- c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE) >>> (1:4)[ok] >>> >>> In general in R if there is an operation involving two vectors then >>> the shorter one gets recycled to provide sufficiently many entries to >>> match those of the longer vector. >>> >>> This in the foregoing example the first entry of "ok" gets used again, >>> to make a length 4 vector to match up with 1:4.  The result is the same >>> >>> as (1:4)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)]. >>> >>> If you did (1:7)[ok] you'd get the same result as that from >>> (1:7)[c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE)] i.e. "ok" gets >>> recycled 2 and 1/3 times. >>> >>> Try 10*(1:3) + 1:4, 10*(1:3) + 1:5, 10*(1:3) + 1:6 . >>> >>> Note that in the first two instances you get warnings, but in the third >>> you don't, since 6 is an integer multiple of 3. >>> >>> Why aren't there warnings when logical indexing is used?  I guess >>> because it would be annoying.  Maybe. >>> >>> Note that integer indices get recycled too, but the recycling is >>> limited >>> so as not to produce redundancies.  So >>> >>> (1:4)[1:3] just (sensibly) gives >>> >>> [1] 1 2 3 >>> >>> and *not* >>> >>> [1] 1 2 3 1 >>> >>> Perhaps a bit subtle, but it gives what you'd actually *want* rather >>> than being pedantic about rules with a result that you wouldn't want. >>> >>> cheers, >>> >>> Rolf Turner >>> >>> P.S.  If you do >>> >>> y[1:3][!is.na(y[1:3])] >>> >>> i.e. if you're careful to match the length of the vector and the that >>> of >>> the indices, you get what you initially expected. >>> >>> R. T. >>> >>> P^2.S.  To the younger and wiser heads on this list:  the help on "[" >>> does not mention that the index vectors can be logical.  I couldn't >>> find >>> anything about logical indexing in the R help files.  Is something >>> missing here, or am I just not looking in the right place? >>> >>> R. T. >> >> -- >> Sent from my phone. Please excuse my brevity. >> > > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] > > ______________________________________________ > [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-help> PLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.html> and provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code. > ______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list -- To UNSUBSCRIBE and more, see https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/r-helpPLEASE do read the posting guide http://www.R-project.org/posting-guide.htmland provide commented, minimal, self-contained, reproducible code.