RQuantLib: AmericanOptionImpliedVolatilit


RQuantLib: AmericanOptionImpliedVolatilit

Hi,
I found a problem with the function "AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility" in RQantLib which return an error for a specific set of conditions (but cannot identifies exactly what are these). I present a case related to a short term, very deep inthemoney put with negative interest rate that generate error message. I present a reproducible example below. I found the related function "AmericanOption" with default produce similar error when use in a routine to backout the implied volatility. However, I found good result (no error) when using the engine="CrankNicolson" : a na�ve routine for backingout the implied vol with this function return a volatility. There's a work around but think this information may add more stability to RQL. Best Regards Charles Case RQuantLib Version 4.2 R version 3.3.2 (64bits) library(RQuantLib) price = 14.5 strike = 65 Spot= 50.5 Rate = 0.00361 DividendYield = 0 Volatility = 0.296 YearToMaturity = 3/365 # error when Implied Vol AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility("put", price,Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) Error in americanOptionImpliedVolatilityEngine(type, value, underlying, : ../../../QuantLib1.6.2/ql/math/solver1d.hpp:202: In function `QuantLib::Real QuantLib::Solver1D<Impl>::solve(const F&, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real) const [with F = QuantLib::{anonymous}::PriceError; Impl = QuantLib::Brent; QuantLib::Real = double]': root not bracketed: f[1e007,4] > [1.955446e003,3.006858e+000] #also generate error AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) # works well AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="CrankNicolson") # backing out the implied vol naively works fImpliedVol(Volatility,price,"put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity) fImpliedVol<function(iniVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat){ ftm<function(ImpVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat, iVol) { ov<AmericanOption(type=Callput, underlying=Spot, strike=Strike,dividendYield=DivYield, riskFreeRate=Rate, maturity=YrtoMat,volatility=ImpVol, timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine= "CrankNicolson") er<(Premiumov$value)^2 } imp<optimize(f=ftm,c(lower = 0, upper = 1.5), tol = 1e4,Premium,Callput,Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat) return(imp$minimum) } > sessionInfo() R version 3.3.2 (20161031) Platform: x86_64w64mingw32/x64 (64bit) Running under: Windows >= 8 x64 (build 9200) locale: [1] LC_COLLATE=English_United States.1252 LC_CTYPE=English_United States.1252 LC_MONETARY=English_United States.1252 [4] LC_NUMERIC=C LC_TIME=English_United States.1252 attached base packages: [1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base other attached packages: [1] RQuantLib_0.4.3 dplyr_0.5.0 loaded via a namespace (and not attached): [1] zoo_1.80 magrittr_1.5 R6_2.1.2 assertthat_0.2.0 DBI_0.61 tools_3.3.2 tibble_1.0 Rcpp_0.12.10 [9] grid_3.3.2 lattice_0.2034 > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. 
Charles, my suggestion (which I doubt you will like) is to wrap your calls
to implied volatility root finders (quant lib or any others) in a try block that returns NA on error. Your example (very little or no time value) can be common if you are using mid prices from bidask quotes. Note that when you plug the answer from your sum of squares root finding routine back into AmericanOption you get a value slightly above 14.5. On Fri, May 26, 2017 at 11:46 AM, Charles Duranceau <[hidden email]> wrote: > Hi, > > I found a problem with the function "AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility" in > RQantLib which return an error for a specific set of conditions (but cannot > identifies exactly what are these). > I present a case related to a short term, very deep inthemoney put with > negative interest rate that generate error message. I present a > reproducible example below. > I found the related function "AmericanOption" with default produce similar > error when use in a routine to backout the implied volatility. > However, I found good result (no error) when using the > engine="CrankNicolson" : a naïve routine for backingout the implied vol > with this function return a volatility. > There's a work around but think this information may add more stability to > RQL. > > Best Regards > Charles > > > Case > RQuantLib Version 4.2 > > R version 3.3.2 (64bits) > > library(RQuantLib) > > price = 14.5 > strike = 65 > Spot= 50.5 > Rate = 0.00361 > DividendYield = 0 > Volatility = 0.296 > YearToMaturity = 3/365 > > # error when Implied Vol > AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility("put", price,Spot, strike, DividendYield, > Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) > > Error in americanOptionImpliedVolatilityEngine(type, value, underlying, : > > ../../../QuantLib1.6.2/ql/math/solver1d.hpp:202: In function > `QuantLib::Real QuantLib::Solver1D<Impl>::solve(const F&, QuantLib::Real, > QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real) const [with F = > QuantLib::{anonymous}::PriceError; Impl = QuantLib::Brent; QuantLib::Real > = double]': > root not bracketed: f[1e007,4] > [1.955446e003,3.006858e+000] > > #also generate error > AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, > Volatility) > > # works well > AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, > Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="CrankNicolson") > # backing out the implied vol naively works > fImpliedVol(Volatility,price,"put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, > Rate,YearToMaturity) > > > fImpliedVol<function(iniVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, > Rate,YrtoMat){ > ftm<function(ImpVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, > Rate,YrtoMat, iVol) > { > ov<AmericanOption(type=Callput, underlying=Spot, > strike=Strike,dividendYield=DivYield, riskFreeRate=Rate, > maturity=YrtoMat,volatility=ImpVol, > timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine= > "CrankNicolson") > er<(Premiumov$value)^2 > } > imp<optimize(f=ftm,c(lower = 0, upper = 1.5), tol = > 1e4,Premium,Callput,Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat) > return(imp$minimum) > } > > > sessionInfo() > R version 3.3.2 (20161031) > Platform: x86_64w64mingw32/x64 (64bit) > Running under: Windows >= 8 x64 (build 9200) > > locale: > [1] LC_COLLATE=English_United States.1252 LC_CTYPE=English_United > States.1252 LC_MONETARY=English_United States.1252 > [4] LC_NUMERIC=C LC_TIME=English_United > States.1252 > > attached base packages: > [1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base > > other attached packages: > [1] RQuantLib_0.4.3 dplyr_0.5.0 > > loaded via a namespace (and not attached): > [1] zoo_1.80 magrittr_1.5 R6_2.1.2 assertthat_0.2.0 > DBI_0.61 tools_3.3.2 tibble_1.0 Rcpp_0.12.10 > [9] grid_3.3.2 lattice_0.2034 > > > > > > > > > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] > > > _______________________________________________ > [hidden email] mailing list > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance >  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first. >  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions > should go. > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. 
Thank you Robert,
I agree with you this is an extreme case and I don’t expect too much accuracy from the implied volatility I get, but my concern was more about the error message (a NA would have been more desirable) By changing the engine I managed a workaround but I thought RQL team (or someone else having the same problem) could be interested with that nondesirable behavior. Regards From: Robert Harlow [mailto:[hidden email]] Sent: Friday, May 26, 2017 3:32 PM To: Charles Duranceau Cc: [hidden email] Subject: Re: [RSIGFinance] RQuantLib: AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility bug Charles, my suggestion (which I doubt you will like) is to wrap your calls to implied volatility root finders (quant lib or any others) in a try block that returns NA on error. Your example (very little or no time value) can be common if you are using mid prices from bidask quotes. Note that when you plug the answer from your sum of squares root finding routine back into AmericanOption you get a value slightly above 14.5. On Fri, May 26, 2017 at 11:46 AM, Charles Duranceau <[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>> wrote: Hi, I found a problem with the function "AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility" in RQantLib which return an error for a specific set of conditions (but cannot identifies exactly what are these). I present a case related to a short term, very deep inthemoney put with negative interest rate that generate error message. I present a reproducible example below. I found the related function "AmericanOption" with default produce similar error when use in a routine to backout the implied volatility. However, I found good result (no error) when using the engine="CrankNicolson" : a naïve routine for backingout the implied vol with this function return a volatility. There's a work around but think this information may add more stability to RQL. Best Regards Charles Case RQuantLib Version 4.2 R version 3.3.2 (64bits) library(RQuantLib) price = 14.5 strike = 65 Spot= 50.5 Rate = 0.00361 DividendYield = 0 Volatility = 0.296 YearToMaturity = 3/365 # error when Implied Vol AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility("put", price,Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) Error in americanOptionImpliedVolatilityEngine(type, value, underlying, : ../../../QuantLib1.6.2/ql/math/solver1d.hpp:202: In function `QuantLib::Real QuantLib::Solver1D<Impl>::solve(const F&, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real) const [with F = QuantLib::{anonymous}::PriceError; Impl = QuantLib::Brent; QuantLib::Real = double]': root not bracketed: f[1e007,4] > [1.955446e003,3.006858e+000] #also generate error AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) # works well AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="CrankNicolson") # backing out the implied vol naively works fImpliedVol(Volatility,price,"put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity) fImpliedVol<function(iniVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat){ ftm<function(ImpVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat, iVol) { ov<AmericanOption(type=Callput, underlying=Spot, strike=Strike,dividendYield=DivYield, riskFreeRate=Rate, maturity=YrtoMat,volatility=ImpVol, timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine= "CrankNicolson") er<(Premiumov$value)^2 } imp<optimize(f=ftm,c(lower = 0, upper = 1.5), tol = 1e4,Premium,Callput,Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat) return(imp$minimum) } > sessionInfo() R version 3.3.2 (20161031) Platform: x86_64w64mingw32/x64 (64bit) Running under: Windows >= 8 x64 (build 9200) locale: [1] LC_COLLATE=English_United States.1252 LC_CTYPE=English_United States.1252 LC_MONETARY=English_United States.1252 [4] LC_NUMERIC=C LC_TIME=English_United States.1252 attached base packages: [1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base other attached packages: [1] RQuantLib_0.4.3 dplyr_0.5.0 loaded via a namespace (and not attached): [1] zoo_1.80 magrittr_1.5 R6_2.1.2 assertthat_0.2.0 DBI_0.61 tools_3.3.2 tibble_1.0 Rcpp_0.12.10 [9] grid_3.3.2 lattice_0.2034 > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]> mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance<https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance>  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. 
Doesn't the error message say root not bracketed? That is informative because it means there is no root, or no implied volatility, that gives you back your price of 14.5 this is what you should expect given your inputs. In order for a volatility to exist an option must have a positive time value.
Bob > On May 26, 2017, at 6:55 PM, Charles Duranceau <[hidden email]> wrote: > > Thank you Robert, > I agree with you this is an extreme case and I don’t expect too much accuracy from the implied volatility I get, but my concern was more about the error message (a NA would have been more desirable) > By changing the engine I managed a workaround but I thought RQL team (or someone else having the same problem) could be interested with that nondesirable behavior. > > Regards > > > From: Robert Harlow [mailto:[hidden email]] > Sent: Friday, May 26, 2017 3:32 PM > To: Charles Duranceau > Cc: [hidden email] > Subject: Re: [RSIGFinance] RQuantLib: AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility bug > > Charles, my suggestion (which I doubt you will like) is to wrap your calls to implied volatility root finders (quant lib or any others) in a try block that returns NA on error. Your example (very little or no time value) can be common if you are using mid prices from bidask quotes. Note that when you plug the answer from your sum of squares root finding routine back into AmericanOption you get a value slightly above 14.5. > > On Fri, May 26, 2017 at 11:46 AM, Charles Duranceau <[hidden email]> wrote: > Hi, > > I found a problem with the function "AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility" in RQantLib which return an error for a specific set of conditions (but cannot identifies exactly what are these). > I present a case related to a short term, very deep inthemoney put with negative interest rate that generate error message. I present a reproducible example below. > I found the related function "AmericanOption" with default produce similar error when use in a routine to backout the implied volatility. > However, I found good result (no error) when using the engine="CrankNicolson" : a naïve routine for backingout the implied vol with this function return a volatility. > There's a work around but think this information may add more stability to RQL. > > Best Regards > Charles > > > Case > RQuantLib Version 4.2 > > R version 3.3.2 (64bits) > > library(RQuantLib) > > price = 14.5 > strike = 65 > Spot= 50.5 > Rate = 0.00361 > DividendYield = 0 > Volatility = 0.296 > YearToMaturity = 3/365 > > # error when Implied Vol > AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility("put", price,Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) > > Error in americanOptionImpliedVolatilityEngine(type, value, underlying, : > > ../../../QuantLib1.6.2/ql/math/solver1d.hpp:202: In function `QuantLib::Real QuantLib::Solver1D<Impl>::solve(const F&, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real) const [with F = QuantLib::{anonymous}::PriceError; Impl = QuantLib::Brent; QuantLib::Real = double]': > root not bracketed: f[1e007,4] > [1.955446e003,3.006858e+000] > > #also generate error > AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) > > # works well > AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="CrankNicolson") > # backing out the implied vol naively works > fImpliedVol(Volatility,price,"put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity) > > > fImpliedVol<function(iniVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat){ > ftm<function(ImpVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat, iVol) > { > ov<AmericanOption(type=Callput, underlying=Spot, strike=Strike,dividendYield=DivYield, riskFreeRate=Rate, maturity=YrtoMat,volatility=ImpVol, > timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine= "CrankNicolson") > er<(Premiumov$value)^2 > } > imp<optimize(f=ftm,c(lower = 0, upper = 1.5), tol = 1e4,Premium,Callput,Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat) > return(imp$minimum) > } > > > sessionInfo() > R version 3.3.2 (20161031) > Platform: x86_64w64mingw32/x64 (64bit) > Running under: Windows >= 8 x64 (build 9200) > > locale: > [1] LC_COLLATE=English_United States.1252 LC_CTYPE=English_United States.1252 LC_MONETARY=English_United States.1252 > [4] LC_NUMERIC=C LC_TIME=English_United States.1252 > > attached base packages: > [1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base > > other attached packages: > [1] RQuantLib_0.4.3 dplyr_0.5.0 > > loaded via a namespace (and not attached): > [1] zoo_1.80 magrittr_1.5 R6_2.1.2 assertthat_0.2.0 DBI_0.61 tools_3.3.2 tibble_1.0 Rcpp_0.12.10 > [9] grid_3.3.2 lattice_0.2034 > > > > > > > > > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] > > > _______________________________________________ > [hidden email] mailing list > https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance >  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first. >  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. 
Hi Robert,
Thank you for your feedback. I don’t disagree with you. There must be a (positive) time value in the option in order to have an implied volatility. But the implied volatility is function of the model (pricing engine). I now think the problem is located to the engine="BaroneAdesiWhaley" when risk free rate is negative. Let me take another approach by calculating the premium for the same option (with the same parameter) using an arbitrary volatility of 30% (below I paste the example) so using directly the option valuation to calculate the premium I will get Option intrinsic value = 14.49957 EuropeanOption = 14.5019 => this is expected: very little time value due to deep inthemoney and little time before expiration AmericanOption, engine="CrankNicolson"= 14.5019 => it is floored to European option value but the early exercise has no value as rate is negative AmericanOption, engine="BaroneAdesiWhaley" = error message => this is not expected “Error in americanOptionEngine(type, underlying, strike, dividendYield, : forward + displacement (8.68397e+012 + 0) must be positive” I suspect here the engine="BaroneAdesiWhaley" does not behave well under a negative rate. I don’t have this error when rate is positive. Adding a positive (and higher) dividend yield does not help either which isolate the problem to the rate side. My understanding of BAW approximation for nondividend American put is that it is not optimal to exercise when rates are negative (negative carry) and thus should default to the European option value. Regards Replication in R library(RQuantLib) strike = 65 Spot= 50.5 Rate = 0.00361 DividendYield = 0 Volatility = 0.3 YearToMaturity = 3/365 (strikeSpot)*exp((RateDividendYield)*YearToMaturity) # intrinsic value EuropeanOption("put", Spot, strike,DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="CrankNicolson") AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="BaroneAdesiWhaley") # error From: Robert Harlow [mailto:[hidden email]] Sent: Saturday, May 27, 2017 6:10 AM To: Charles Duranceau Cc: [hidden email] Subject: Re: [RSIGFinance] RQuantLib: AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility bug Doesn't the error message say root not bracketed? That is informative because it means there is no root, or no implied volatility, that gives you back your price of 14.5 this is what you should expect given your inputs. In order for a volatility to exist an option must have a positive time value. Bob On May 26, 2017, at 6:55 PM, Charles Duranceau <[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>> wrote: Thank you Robert, I agree with you this is an extreme case and I don’t expect too much accuracy from the implied volatility I get, but my concern was more about the error message (a NA would have been more desirable) By changing the engine I managed a workaround but I thought RQL team (or someone else having the same problem) could be interested with that nondesirable behavior. Regards From: Robert Harlow [mailto:[hidden email]] Sent: Friday, May 26, 2017 3:32 PM To: Charles Duranceau Cc: [hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]> Subject: Re: [RSIGFinance] RQuantLib: AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility bug Charles, my suggestion (which I doubt you will like) is to wrap your calls to implied volatility root finders (quant lib or any others) in a try block that returns NA on error. Your example (very little or no time value) can be common if you are using mid prices from bidask quotes. Note that when you plug the answer from your sum of squares root finding routine back into AmericanOption you get a value slightly above 14.5. On Fri, May 26, 2017 at 11:46 AM, Charles Duranceau <[hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]>> wrote: Hi, I found a problem with the function "AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility" in RQantLib which return an error for a specific set of conditions (but cannot identifies exactly what are these). I present a case related to a short term, very deep inthemoney put with negative interest rate that generate error message. I present a reproducible example below. I found the related function "AmericanOption" with default produce similar error when use in a routine to backout the implied volatility. However, I found good result (no error) when using the engine="CrankNicolson" : a naïve routine for backingout the implied vol with this function return a volatility. There's a work around but think this information may add more stability to RQL. Best Regards Charles Case RQuantLib Version 4.2 R version 3.3.2 (64bits) library(RQuantLib) price = 14.5 strike = 65 Spot= 50.5 Rate = 0.00361 DividendYield = 0 Volatility = 0.296 YearToMaturity = 3/365 # error when Implied Vol AmericanOptionImpliedVolatility("put", price,Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) Error in americanOptionImpliedVolatilityEngine(type, value, underlying, : ../../../QuantLib1.6.2/ql/math/solver1d.hpp:202: In function `QuantLib::Real QuantLib::Solver1D<Impl>::solve(const F&, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real, QuantLib::Real) const [with F = QuantLib::{anonymous}::PriceError; Impl = QuantLib::Brent; QuantLib::Real = double]': root not bracketed: f[1e007,4] > [1.955446e003,3.006858e+000] #also generate error AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility) # works well AmericanOption("put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity, Volatility,timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine="CrankNicolson") # backing out the implied vol naively works fImpliedVol(Volatility,price,"put", Spot, strike, DividendYield, Rate,YearToMaturity) fImpliedVol<function(iniVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat){ ftm<function(ImpVol,Premium,Callput, Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat, iVol) { ov<AmericanOption(type=Callput, underlying=Spot, strike=Strike,dividendYield=DivYield, riskFreeRate=Rate, maturity=YrtoMat,volatility=ImpVol, timeSteps=150, gridPoints=149, engine= "CrankNicolson") er<(Premiumov$value)^2 } imp<optimize(f=ftm,c(lower = 0, upper = 1.5), tol = 1e4,Premium,Callput,Spot, Strike, DivYield, Rate,YrtoMat) return(imp$minimum) } > sessionInfo() R version 3.3.2 (20161031) Platform: x86_64w64mingw32/x64 (64bit) Running under: Windows >= 8 x64 (build 9200) locale: [1] LC_COLLATE=English_United States.1252 LC_CTYPE=English_United States.1252 LC_MONETARY=English_United States.1252 [4] LC_NUMERIC=C LC_TIME=English_United States.1252 attached base packages: [1] stats graphics grDevices utils datasets methods base other attached packages: [1] RQuantLib_0.4.3 dplyr_0.5.0 loaded via a namespace (and not attached): [1] zoo_1.80 magrittr_1.5 R6_2.1.2 assertthat_0.2.0 DBI_0.61 tools_3.3.2 tibble_1.0 Rcpp_0.12.10 [9] grid_3.3.2 lattice_0.2034 > [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email]<mailto:[hidden email]> mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance<https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance>  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. [[alternative HTML version deleted]] _______________________________________________ [hidden email] mailing list https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsigfinance  Subscriberposting only. If you want to post, subscribe first.  Also note that this is not the rhelp list where general R questions should go. 
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