

Hi,
I am trying to plot multiple lines on a graph.
The function is particularly simple:
sigma<function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*str*(lambda0.5)^2
which uses the variables atm, rr and str...
I define these as such:
atm<0.4
rr<0.2
str<0.1
and this plots fine:
plot(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)),ylim=c(0,1))
Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of str, as follows:
sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
Instead, I just get this:
> sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
[[1]]
NULL
[[2]]
NULL
[[3]]
NULL
[[4]]
NULL
[[5]]
NULL
[[6]]
NULL
[[7]]
NULL
and the plot does not change.
Any assistance appreciated.
Regards,
Tolga
This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml==============================================================================
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http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml______________________________________________
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Ah OK. That is probably it, though I can't see why.
In function sigma, I use a variable falled str, which would be bound in the environment to some value.
Then, in the sapply statment, I was hoping that by setting str to the values in the vector that is the first argument to sapply, I would get different plots each time I called lines afterwards with sigma. Do you see what I mean ?
This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer
< http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml> >
Original Message
From: jim holtman [mailto: [hidden email]]
Sent: 20 December 2005 19:20
To: Uzuner, Tolga
Subject: Re: [R] help with sapply, plot, lines
you are plotting the same line as originally over and over again. what do you want to do with the parameters that you are passing in. There is no call to sigma in the sapply. How do you want to vary the parameters in the plot?
On 12/20/05, Uzuner, Tolga < [hidden email] <mailto: [hidden email]> > wrote:
Hi,
I am trying to plot multiple lines on a graph.
The function is particularly simple:
sigma<function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*str*(lambda0.5)^2
which uses the variables atm, rr and str...
I define these as such:
atm<0.4
rr<0.2
str<0.1
and this plots fine:
plot(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)),ylim=c(0,1))
Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of str, as follows:
sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq( 0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
Instead, I just get this:
> sapply(seq(0, 0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
[[1]]
NULL
[[2]]
NULL
[[3]]
NULL
[[4]]
NULL
[[5]]
NULL
[[6]]
NULL
[[7]]
NULL
and the plot does not change.
Any assistance appreciated.
Regards,
Tolga
This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml>
==============================================================================
Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml>
______________________________________________
[hidden email] <mailto: [hidden email]> mailing list
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp < https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp>
PLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html < http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html>

Jim Holtman
Cincinnati, OH
+1 513 247 0281
What the problem you are trying to solve?
==============================================================================
Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
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[[alternative HTML version deleted]]
______________________________________________
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The following is as in your post but cleaned up slightly.
Note in particular that str is an R function and although its not
wrong to also use it as a variable we use Str below to make it
clearer: Also we define a variable xx as shown.
atm < 0.4
rr < 0.2
Str < 0.1
sigma < function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*Str*(lambda0.5)^2
xx < seq(0, 0.3, 0.05)
plot(xx, sigma(xx))
sapply(xx, function(Str) lines(xx, sigma(xx))) # wrong!
Note that sigma is defined in the global environment so lexical
scope implies that that is where sigma will look for Str  not
within the function defined in the sapply statement.
To correct this we could do one of the following:
1. pass Str explicitly:
sigma2 < function(Str, lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*Str*(lambda0.5)^2
plot(xx, sigma2(Str, xx))
sapply(xx, function(Str, lambda) lines(xx, sigma2(Str, xx)), lambda = xx)
2. (a) define sigma within the sapply so its lexical scope is as
desired rather than the global environment:
plot(xx, sigma(xx)) # same sigma as defined at the top
sapply(xx, function(Str, lambda) {
sigma < function(lambda) # new local sigma
atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*Str*(lambda0.5)^2
lines(xx, sigma(xx))
})
(b) rather than write sigma out again we could make a copy of the
original one and reset its environment:
plot(xx, sigma(xx)) # same sigma as defined at the top
sapply(xx, function(Str, lambda) {
environment(sigma) < environment()
lines(xx, sigma(xx))
})
(c) instead of using environment we could express it slightly more
compactly using the proto package. A proto object is an environment
but any function component of a proto object defined in a proto
statement has its environment reset to that object:
library(proto)
plot(xx, sigma(xx))
sapply(xx, function(Str) lines(xx, with(proto(sigma = sigma), sigma(xx))))
On 12/20/05, Uzuner, Tolga < [hidden email]> wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I am trying to plot multiple lines on a graph.
>
> The function is particularly simple:
>
> sigma<function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*str*(lambda0.5)^2
>
> which uses the variables atm, rr and str...
>
> I define these as such:
>
> atm<0.4
> rr<0.2
> str<0.1
>
>
> and this plots fine:
>
> plot(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)),ylim=c(0,1))
>
> Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of str, as follows:
>
> sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
>
> Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
>
> Instead, I just get this:
> > sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
> [[1]]
> NULL
>
> [[2]]
> NULL
>
> [[3]]
> NULL
>
> [[4]]
> NULL
>
> [[5]]
> NULL
>
> [[6]]
> NULL
>
> [[7]]
> NULL
>
> and the plot does not change.
>
> Any assistance appreciated.
>
> Regards,
> Tolga
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml>
>
>
> ==============================================================================
> Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
>
> http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp> PLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html>
______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelpPLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html


Fantastic. Many thanks, this is great. All understood. I will go with the first recommendation (pass it in explicitly).
Regards,
Tolga
This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtmlOriginal Message
From: Gabor Grothendieck [mailto: [hidden email]]
Sent: 20 December 2005 19:30
To: Uzuner, Tolga
Cc: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [R] help with sapply, plot, lines
The following is as in your post but cleaned up slightly.
Note in particular that str is an R function and although its not
wrong to also use it as a variable we use Str below to make it
clearer: Also we define a variable xx as shown.
atm < 0.4
rr < 0.2
Str < 0.1
sigma < function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*Str*(lambda0.5)^2
xx < seq(0, 0.3, 0.05)
plot(xx, sigma(xx))
sapply(xx, function(Str) lines(xx, sigma(xx))) # wrong!
Note that sigma is defined in the global environment so lexical
scope implies that that is where sigma will look for Str  not
within the function defined in the sapply statement.
To correct this we could do one of the following:
1. pass Str explicitly:
sigma2 < function(Str, lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*Str*(lambda0.5)^2
plot(xx, sigma2(Str, xx))
sapply(xx, function(Str, lambda) lines(xx, sigma2(Str, xx)), lambda = xx)
2. (a) define sigma within the sapply so its lexical scope is as
desired rather than the global environment:
plot(xx, sigma(xx)) # same sigma as defined at the top
sapply(xx, function(Str, lambda) {
sigma < function(lambda) # new local sigma
atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*Str*(lambda0.5)^2
lines(xx, sigma(xx))
})
(b) rather than write sigma out again we could make a copy of the
original one and reset its environment:
plot(xx, sigma(xx)) # same sigma as defined at the top
sapply(xx, function(Str, lambda) {
environment(sigma) < environment()
lines(xx, sigma(xx))
})
(c) instead of using environment we could express it slightly more
compactly using the proto package. A proto object is an environment
but any function component of a proto object defined in a proto
statement has its environment reset to that object:
library(proto)
plot(xx, sigma(xx))
sapply(xx, function(Str) lines(xx, with(proto(sigma = sigma), sigma(xx))))
On 12/20/05, Uzuner, Tolga < [hidden email]> wrote:
> Hi,
>
> I am trying to plot multiple lines on a graph.
>
> The function is particularly simple:
>
> sigma<function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*str*(lambda0.5)^2
>
> which uses the variables atm, rr and str...
>
> I define these as such:
>
> atm<0.4
> rr<0.2
> str<0.1
>
>
> and this plots fine:
>
> plot(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)),ylim=c(0,1))
>
> Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of str, as follows:
>
> sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
>
> Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
>
> Instead, I just get this:
> > sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
> [[1]]
> NULL
>
> [[2]]
> NULL
>
> [[3]]
> NULL
>
> [[4]]
> NULL
>
> [[5]]
> NULL
>
> [[6]]
> NULL
>
> [[7]]
> NULL
>
> and the plot does not change.
>
> Any assistance appreciated.
>
> Regards,
> Tolga
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml>
>
>
> ==============================================================================
> Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
>
> http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp> PLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html>
==============================================================================
Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelpPLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html


> Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of
> str, as follows:
>
> sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s;
> lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
>
> Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that
> lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
>
Lexical scoping means that the free variable str in sigma is looked for in
the enclosing environment, not the parent environment. This is the
environment in which sigma was defined, not called. Hence str is constant in
your calls and you get identical results at each call. See the section 3.3.1
of the R FAQ. In your example, the straightforward solution is to pass str
as an argument of sigma.
 Bert Gunter
Genentech NonClinical Statistics
South San Francisco, CA
"The business of the statistician is to catalyze the scientific learning
process."  George E. P. Box
> Original Message
> From: [hidden email]
> [mailto: [hidden email]] On Behalf Of Uzuner, Tolga
> Sent: Tuesday, December 20, 2005 10:18 AM
> To: ' [hidden email]'
> Subject: [R] help with sapply, plot, lines
>
> Hi,
>
> I am trying to plot multiple lines on a graph.
>
> The function is particularly simple:
>
> sigma<function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*str*(lambda0.5)^2
>
> which uses the variables atm, rr and str...
>
> I define these as such:
>
> atm<0.4
> rr<0.2
> str<0.1
>
>
> and this plots fine:
>
> plot(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)),ylim=c(0,1))
>
> Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of
> str, as follows:
>
> sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s;
> lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
>
> Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that
> lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
>
> Instead, I just get this:
> > sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s;
> lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
> [[1]]
> NULL
>
> [[2]]
> NULL
>
> [[3]]
> NULL
>
> [[4]]
> NULL
>
> [[5]]
> NULL
>
> [[6]]
> NULL
>
> [[7]]
> NULL
>
> and the plot does not change.
>
> Any assistance appreciated.
>
> Regards,
> Tolga
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> This material is sales and trading commentary and does not
> constitute investment research. Please follow the attached
> hyperlink to an important disclaimer
> http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml>
>
>
> ==============================================================
> ================
> Please access the attached hyperlink for an important
> electronic communications disclaimer:
>
> http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp> PLEASE do read the posting guide!
> http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html>
______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelpPLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html


On 12/20/05, Uzuner, Tolga < [hidden email]> wrote:
> Ah OK. That is probably it, though I can't see why.
>
> In function sigma, I use a variable falled str, which would be bound in the environment to some value.
>
The environment into which sigma looks for str is the environment
where sigma was defined, i.e. the global environment, not the environment
where sigma was called from. That's what lexical scoping means.
The alternative, in which sigma would look into the environment from
which it is called would be dynamic scoping but that's not the way
R works.
> Then, in the sapply statment, I was hoping that by setting str to the values in the vector that is the first argument to sapply, I would get different plots each time I called lines afterwards with sigma. Do you see what I mean ?
>
> This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer
> < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml> >
>
> Original Message
> From: jim holtman [mailto: [hidden email]]
> Sent: 20 December 2005 19:20
> To: Uzuner, Tolga
> Subject: Re: [R] help with sapply, plot, lines
>
>
> you are plotting the same line as originally over and over again. what do you want to do with the parameters that you are passing in. There is no call to sigma in the sapply. How do you want to vary the parameters in the plot?
>
>
> On 12/20/05, Uzuner, Tolga < [hidden email] <mailto: [hidden email]> > wrote:
>
> Hi,
>
> I am trying to plot multiple lines on a graph.
>
> The function is particularly simple:
>
> sigma<function(lambda) atm2*rr*(lambda0.5)+16*str*(lambda0.5)^2
>
> which uses the variables atm, rr and str...
>
> I define these as such:
>
> atm<0.4
> rr<0.2
> str<0.1
>
>
> and this plots fine:
>
> plot(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)),ylim=c(0,1))
>
> Now, I want to plot the same function for different values of str, as follows:
>
> sapply(seq(0,0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq( 0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
>
> Hoping that sigma will lexically scope into str and that lines will appear on the same plot as the one I first drew above.
>
> Instead, I just get this:
> > sapply(seq(0, 0.3,0.05),function(s) {str<s; lines(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01),sigma(seq(0.01,0.99,0.01)))})
> [[1]]
> NULL
>
> [[2]]
> NULL
>
> [[3]]
> NULL
>
> [[4]]
> NULL
>
> [[5]]
> NULL
>
> [[6]]
> NULL
>
> [[7]]
> NULL
>
> and the plot does not change.
>
> Any assistance appreciated.
>
> Regards,
> Tolga
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
> This material is sales and trading commentary and does not constitute investment research. Please follow the attached hyperlink to an important disclaimer http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_europe.shtml>
>
>
>
> ==============================================================================
> Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
>
> http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml < http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml>
>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] <mailto: [hidden email]> mailing list
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp < https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp>
> PLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html < http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html>
>
>
>
>
>
> 
> Jim Holtman
> Cincinnati, OH
> +1 513 247 0281
>
> What the problem you are trying to solve?
>
>
> ==============================================================================
> Please access the attached hyperlink for an important electronic communications disclaimer:
>
> http://www.csfb.com/legal_terms/disclaimer_external_email.shtml>
> ==============================================================================
>
> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>
> ______________________________________________
> [hidden email] mailing list
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelp> PLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html>
______________________________________________
[hidden email] mailing list
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rhelpPLEASE do read the posting guide! http://www.Rproject.org/postingguide.html

